Spot bus line and automation of shop ground floor

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1, technology of spot bus line 1.

Concept of technology of 1 spot bus line is defined according to IEC1158 of international Electrotechnical Committee, spot bus line (Fieldbus) be " the spot equipment that installation is producing process section / the automation unit with appearance and indoor control / the data bus line of many bits of type of a kind of between the system serial, number, communication " . Perhaps say, spot bus line is with individual and dispersive, the measurement that digitlization, intelligence changes and control equipment regard a network as node, use bus line photograph to join, implementation exchanges information each other, complete the network system of automata function and control system jointly. Among them, "Manufacturing process " should include intermittent manufacturing process and serial production process two kinds. Spot equipment / appearance points to the equipment such as the sensor that is located in spot layer, driver, actuator. Accordingly, spot bus line is to face the digitlization network technology with automation of shop ground floor and compositive information. The automation system that is based on this technology calls FCS (Fieldbus Control System) . 1.

The main characteristic   of technology of 2 spots bus line (L) digitlization communication replaces technique of tradition of 4~20mA imitate signal, the join between spot layer equipment and controller is man-to-man (an I/O dot charges a point to be being measured of equipment) means of alleged I/O wiring, signal delivers 4~20mA (deferent imitate measures information) or 24VDC (deferent switch measures information) signal. Technology of applied spot bus line can use a telecommunication cable controller and spot equipment (intelligence is changed, contain communication interface) join, use digitlization communication fulfils bottom facility communication and control requirement. (2) spot equipment intelligence changes technology of applied spot bus line, requirement spot equipment (the equipment such as sensor, driver, actuator) it is to contain the intelligence of serial communication interface to change (but process designing may parameter is changed) equipment. Accordingly, technology of spot bus line is a foundation with the development of circuit of computer large scale integration. (3) the long-range control of collection site equipment, parameter is changed reach breakdown to diagnose use the computer to digitlize communication technology to join intelligence turns spot equipment for bus line of spot of an organic whole, accordingly, controller can get a large number of substantial information from spot equipment, can realize information of facility status, breakdown, parameter to convey, long-range control, parameter turns achievable equipment reach breakdown to diagnose the job. (4) spot bus line is computer network communication the communication between the spot layer equipment of the outspread tradition to spot class and controller is used man-to-man the means that connects a line, transmission 4~20mA/24VDC signal. Information content of technology of this kind of communication is finite, the information exchange between system and outside is reached between implementation equipment hard, in making accuse a system to make a plant oneself " information Gu island " , restricted business information badly compositive reach an industry the implementation of integrated automation. Technology of spot bus line uses the computer to digitlize communication technology, make accuse system and equipment to join factory information network oneself, become ground floor of business information network, those who make business information is communicated cover range outspread all the time to manufacturing site. (5) technology of spot bus line is the executive CIMS that the crucial technology with compositive information of implementation shop ground floor should succeed, the information of each administrative levels is compositive reach the technology that prop up -- computer network problem must get settlement. Spot bus line is factory computer network to spot class equipment outspread, it is the technical base with class of the spot that prop up and workshop class compositive information. 1.

Development of technology of 3 spots bus line and standard   (1) technology of bus line of domestic and international spot, product develops technology of bus line of the spot on rapid international and product, system development is rapid. It is with PROFIBUS of spot bus line exemple, the product that supports PRomBUS level at present exceeds 1500 a variety of, come from respectively on international manufacturer of 250 many production. The PROFIBUS equipment that shipping travel already installed inside alive bound limits already exceeded 2 million, year increase rate 25% . The FBS of system of spot bus line that offers by CONSULTIC (the system of spot bus line that FBSz forms by 10 above equipment) market research makes clear (in European market, 1996) : The FBS that already installed is 427500, increase FBS amount newly for 146400. System of spot bus line occupies share of market of whole automation system to be on average 25% . At present manufacturer of world-famous automation, appearance, electric equipment all has product of spot bus line and system, be like Luoke power Er, Xi Menzi, Shi Naide, Luosimengte, Huoniweier, horizontal river to wait. (2) a crucial question that spot bus line did not form technology of unified bus line of international standard spot to be able to come true, it is to want to form a manufacturer in the industry people the standard of technology of spot bus line that observes jointly. Famous automation product reachs spot equipment to produce manufacturer on international, realizing technology of spot bus line is prospective development direction, form business alliance in succession, roll out oneself bus line standard and product, foster an user in the market, enlarge an influence, support international standard organization to establish standard of international of spot bus line. Each big international company is making the competition in standard of international of spot bus line, actual the argue that is actual strength of technology, economy, the contention that is pair of future markets and divide up, accordingly, because the interest is in, be in short-term coming to an agreement is very difficult. Current, IEC has not been achieved expect an end. (3) face phyletic and various automation industry and various application impossibly with standard of bus line of a kind of spot the requirement of demand automation technology to communication network is different from the computer, did not break away from the automation of the industry, face phyletic and various automation industry and various application demand impossibly with standard of bus line of a kind of spot. Some is planted standard of spot bus line is applicable in certain domain, have high-powered price to compare, exceeding these domains may not be best, it is inapplicable even. The idea that tries to use standard of bus line of a kind of spot to cover range of all application domain and practice are not actual. (4) face standard of numerous spot bus line, should begin those who fit Chinese national condition actively, the considers to face all sorts of genre on international spot bus line of the technology of spot bus line that faces manufacturing industry automation and standard, expert of China and foreign countries thinks generally: · expectation IEC can press those who anticipate the target achieves uniform standard to make as early as possible. But the advancement that press item spends estimation, in recent years inside IEC is finished very hard expect an end. The proposal program that at present IEC offers · automation of process of be confined to, be hard to satisfy requirement of other application field, make only standard impossibly, form a variety of standard system coexistence probably. A variety of communication agreement interface are done below uniform standard frame, the likelihood is a kind of of uniform standard appropriate solution. Develop policy in the light of technology of bus line of our country spot, I think, cannot await the international standard of IEC till the cows come home. Should combine our country national condition, dog actively, introduce, the level of spot bus line that there already was maturity application experience on research international, begin those who fit our country national condition, the technology of spot bus line that faces an industry, standard, application and the research that the product develops. 2, system of automation of shop ground floor and information are compositive technical   2.

The administrative levels of 1CIMS architecture and industrial data structure differentiates to reach functional requirement according to process of plant management, production, simplifying CIMS architecture can be divided it is 3, namely factory class, workshop class and spot class. If pursue,1 is shown. 2.

2 spots class and monitoring of workshop class automation and information are compositive it is the substantial spot class with factory automation and indispensable CIMS and monitoring of workshop class automation and information compositive system basically finishs status of the control of bottom facility stand-alone, control that connect a line, signal company net, online facility to monitor reach spot device production, carry, make sure spot equipment high quality finishs manufacturing job, reach spot equipment production moving data information to convey to manage a layer to the factory, provide data to database of system of factory class MIS. The manufacturing government that at the same time acceptability also factory runs a make known to lower levels and tone drag out a miserable existence make and carry out. Accordingly, spot class and workshop class monitoring and information are compositive the foundation that the system is implementation factory automation and CIMS system. 3, the development of technology of spot bus line makes system of automation of shop ground floor and news compositive technology generation changes   3.

The spot class of 1 tradition and workshop class the spot class of supervisory system tradition and workshop class supervisory system is the distributed supervisory system that is based on PLC more. Its are main one of characteristics are: The join between spot layer equipment and controller is man-to-man (an I/O dot charges a point to be being measured of equipment) means of alleged I/O wiring, signal delivers 4-20mA (deferent imitate measures information) or 24VDC (deferent switch measures information) signal. If pursue,2 are shown. 3.

2 systems are main defect   (1) compositive ability relies on information between not strong controller and spot equipment I/O joins even the line, deferent 4-20mA imitate measures signal or the switch such as 24VDC measures signal, and with equipment of this monitoring spot. Such, controller gets information content finite, much data if the data such as equipment parameter, breakdown and out of service record is very god-given arrive. Bottom number of plies occupies not complete, information compositive capability is not strong, cannot satisfy CIMS system completely to count the requirement that occupy to ground floor. (2) the system is not open, but compositive sex is poor, professional divide spot equipment not by force to all rely on standard 4-20mA/24VDC to join, soft, hardware can use systematic other only normally a product. Devoid each other operates gender, interchangeability between different manufacturer product, accordingly but compositive sex is poor. This kind of system is very few put apart interface, allow other firm the control technology him special skill, if control algorithmic, technological process, recipe to wait compositive go in current system, accordingly, the supervisory system that faces an industry is very few. (3) dependability assures distributed to large-scale system not easily, many I/O cable and apply establishment are versed in, raise cost not only, also increased systematic unreliability. (4) can safeguard a gender not tall because information of spot class equipment is not complete, the online breakdown of spot class equipment is diagnosed, call the police, record function is not strong. The long-range parameter set that completes spot installation very hard also on the other hand, revise wait for parameter to change a function, can safeguard a gender what affected a system. 3.

The development of technology of 3 spots bus line facilitates the produces technology of spot bus line progress of supervisory system of new generation automation, the automation supervisory system that new generation is based on spot bus line already showed clue first, the spot class that will not be based on technology of spot bus line and supervisory system of workshop class automation are shown 3 times like the graph. 3.

The 4 automation supervisory system that are based on spot bus line are main advantage   (1) the automation supervisory system that is based on spot bus line enhanced spot class information bus line of compositive ability spot can get a large number of substantial information from spot equipment, can the information of better contented factory automation and CIMS system is compositive requirement. Spot bus line is digitlization communication network, it is not pure replace 4~20mA signal, still can realize information of facility status, breakdown, parameter to convey. The system is divided finish long-range control, achievable still long-range parameter changes the job. (2) sex of operation of open mode, each other, interchangeability, but compositive sex is different manufacturer product should use level of same bus line only, have each other to operate gender, interchangeability, because this equipment is had very good but compositive sex. The system is open mode, allow other firm the control technology him special skill, if control algorithmic, technological process, recipe to wait compositive go in current system, accordingly, market admiral has a lot of supervisory system that face industry characteristic. (3) systematic dependability it is tall, good to can safeguard a gender the automation supervisory system that is based on spot bus line uses bus line to join means replaces man-to-man I/O to connect a line, to large-scale I/O system, decreased to nod the fluky element that cause by wiring. In the meantime, the online trouble that the system has spot class facility is diagnosed, call the police, record function, the long-range parameter set of achievable spot equipment, revise wait for parameter chemical industry to make, also increased to be able to safeguard a gender of the system. (4) economic cost is right for the distributed system of big range, large-scale I/O, leave out I/O module and many cable, cable lay project cost, reduced system and project cost. 3.

The metabolic system of the structures of 5 automation supervisory system that are based on spot bus line all soft, hardware all can be offerred by many manufacturer, and have each other to operate gender, interchangeability, can go to the lavatory implementation hardware and information are compositive. Main distinction of the system is to have the professional software that faces disparate industry, will see those who face an industry in the market all sorts of systems, if generate electricity, be defeated by distribution, make, chemical industry, Lou Yu. (1) controller because controller is to pass communication of spot bus line to finish to the monitoring of spot equipment, because this was not necessary to use the I/O module product that binds with controller, can use any spot facility that have interface of spot bus line and controller compositive. Because the main index of this controller is high speed,instruction processing capability, large memory capacity reachs communication interface of spot bus line. So controller will by the standard, place of general hardware platform Compact, Computer is replaced, be like Intel/Windows kind PC. (2) what the module of dispersive type I/O that goes up to spot bus line by join replaces the I/O module that I/O module inserts on controller frame. Dispersive type I/O is controller manufacturer no longer bind a product, however the product of the 3rd manufacturer; Cheap, the appropriative, I/O module that has special quality (be like tall defend grade, ask for signal of safe, acceptability RTD, MV, high pressure, big electric current to wait originally) will have broad market. (3) spot equipment to specialization way develops, have program and parameter memory, intelligence to control a function, have interface of spot bus line. Controller completes the control work with certain transfer to a lower level by spot equipment oneself, controller makes parameter change only reach run the job that monitor. Like driver, sensor, change send implement, the regulator that has professional control algorithm, actuator, HMI, electric machinery is started reach voltaic protector, be defeated by distribution protector, tall, low-pressure switchgear, these equipment will be by those in course of study of one's own profession the manufacturer that has an advantage is made and have each other to operate gender, interchangeability. (4) software on one hand, software is bound with the hardware such as equipment of controller, I/O, spot no longer, can move in general standard controller hardware, on platform. Software will become the primary programming language that has standard communication agreement, level (like IEC1131 > , the platform of general automation software of interface of format of data of unified interfacial style, standard and standard database. On the other hand software must be open mode, allow the automation expert firm that there is original experience on the industry will professional control algorithm, emulate, optimize, attemper wait for special automation software on platform of built-in and current software, roll out oneself professional automation system that faces an industry. 4, spot class and supervisory system of workshop class automation develop the new opportunity   that reachs industrialization independently 4.

The 1 automation system that is based on spot bus line makes systematic manufacturer produce new become divided main feature departs for controller and systematic software manufacturer, incline to at generalization product. The development of the spot equipment such as I/O, sensor and application software makes run at specializationing. (1) the PLC on controller tradition meaning, process controls station general gradually by the standard, general controller hardware platform one by one Compact Computer place is replaced. This is to be based on PC bus line, Intel/Windows compatible industrial level, solid model PC. General-purpose computer manufacturer product will take dominant place. (2) systematic software by special monitoring kind the product that software company develops, be like: IntentHion (FIX) , Wonderware (IN-TOUCH) , PcSoft (WIZCON) etc will take dominant place, is not controller hardware manufacturer bind software product. Be based on PC/WINDOWS platform, alleged " soft PLC (SoftPLC) " , as compatible as Intel/Windows industry level, solid model PC " combine " , may make controller or system of control of spot bus line advocate the mainstream of the station. (3 > spot equipment sensor, driver, actuator, long-range I/O, by what differ, the manufacturer that has professional advantage is made, be like the appearance of E+H, ROSEMOUNT, SIEMENS, A-B, ABB, Denver this the is defeated by establishment of distribution protector, tall, low-pressure switch, Shi Naide, SIEMENS, A-B I/O module of driver, Shi Naide, SIENMENS. (4) the system will have more manufacturer, be based on platform of general soft hardware and standard, in oneself professional domain rolls out those who face an industry, have major the system of function of control of soft, hardware. 4.

No matter the new opportunity that own development and application extend 2 automation system is PLC or DCS, systematic hardware, software even spot class equipment binds a sale. Developing devoted, scale of production, sale as a result of manufacturer of world-famous automation system conduct propaganda of organization, brand, application supports a respect to compare domestic manufacturer to have absolutely advantage, accordingly, share of market of domestic majority product is had by foreign manufacturer. As a result of the system close quality, domestic manufacturer is done very hard on foreign system product those who face an industry is professional the technology is developed with period reach systematic rise in value, what compositive business can make most country system is systematic whole set only. The system is compositive the market competition success or failure between business, among them technical element is not much, basically be in price respect. The development of technology of spot bus line, the generation of new-style automation supervisory system, make the system tends open, systematic product tends general-purpose, have each other to operate a gender, but interchangeability, anyhow, new-style automation supervisory system offerred to open, the soft hardware platform of general standard. Accordingly, this offerred the opportunity that enters the market for domestic manufacturer. On one hand compositive to automation system kind of enterprise, can use an enterprise to design an advantage in systematic design, software, use an enterprise to have advantage of respect of technology, experience, knowledge in respect of some domain automation, on general systematic platform, development goes him, face advantage industry, the system that has expert and intelligent control function, this can bring more benefit for the enterprise than simple systematic form a complete set. On the other hand, large quantities of spot equipment make home wide home (like driver, sensor, change send implement, adjuster, actuator, HMI, electric machinery is started reach voltaic protector, be defeated by distribution protector, tall, low-pressure switchgear to wait a moment) , especially those manufacturer that produce special quality product (if have professional control to defend algorithmic adjuster, high grade, ask for signal of safe, acceptability RTD, MV, high pressure, big electric current to wait for spot equipment product originally > , transform what the product makes to have interface of spot bus line, can develop wider market for this company product. Because, use device of entrance controller, homebred spot (like driver, sensor, change send implement, adjuster, actuator, I/O) spot bus line controls a system, give attention to two or morethings dependability, function, price 3 respects element, can get the user favors and have broad market. 5, last word   (1) from automation of shop ground floor and information compositive technology angle looks, technology of spot bus line is not a pure technology that changes cable with chip, it is the computer and technology of its digitlization communication to shop ground floor, namely of equipment layer outspread. What happen as other sphere is same, the one frequency word that technology of spot bus line is technology of communication of shop ground floor changes revolution. (2) automation of shop ground floor and information are compositive the foundation that the technology is automation of implementation entire plant and CIMS system. The development of technology of spot bus line, make its traditional happening of construction of system changes, bring the exceedingly good character that traditional system cannot compare, of the open sex that is like substantial spot information natural resources, system, product but interchangeability. (3) the change of construction of system, will bring about manufacturer finally people readjust market strategy and pattern. Open sex brought new opportunity for Chinese automation industry. CNC Milling